For Harry, England, and…

Read the First FolioThanks to the generous donations of our supporters, last year we published a digital facsimile of the Bodleian First Folio of Shakespeare’s plays, where you can experience the first collection of his works in your own home, or download its images to your own device.

This year, to mark Shakespeare’s 450th birthday, we’re delighted to announce a new phase of the project, to publish digital editions of each of the plays. This has been made possible by a lead donation from Dr Geoffrey Eibl-Kaye, with generous support from Dallas Shakespeare Club, James Barber, and another private individual.

Thank you to you all.

We’re excited to be launching our serial publication of Shakespeare’s plays with Henry V: not just for Harry, England, and St. George, but for everyone.

As the digital editions of the plays are published, you will be able to read and reformat them more easily, search across them, and produce play-scripts and cue-scripts.

Henry V

Or

The Life of Henry The Fift.

(as the First Folio titles it)

Henry V is a play of paradoxes.

Sometimes performances interpret the text as jingoistic, highlighting its calls to arms from an impassioned Henry, who understands how to inspire and rouse his troops. Yet a close reading of the text also reveals a petulant and calculating king, who uses his insight to manipulate the people around him, and is capable of denying former friends.

The audience is taken from London to northern France, via Southampton, and in this wide sweep, the Chorus keeps reminding us that we are in the physical space of a theatre.

As the play’s title in its first printed edition (the 1600 quarto) describes, and its most memorable speeches support, this is a play about war: The Cronicle History of King Henry the fift, With his battell fought at Agin Court in France. Together with Auntient Pistoll. But it includes two affecting accounts of deaths (Sir John Falstaff’s, and the Duke of York’s), and a touching (and politically unnecessary) courting scene between Henry and the French princess Katharine (whom he is promised in marriage as the first article in the peace treaty).

Henry shows courteous respect to the Herald who delivers messages from the French camp, yet orders the French prisoners to be killed when he believes the battle is going against him: notably, this happens before he discovers the French have killed the boys behind the English lines.

Henry V and the Bodleian First Folio

In keeping with the many voices of the Bodleian First Folio, Henry V has a particular and poignant place in the life of one of the major figures in the book’s history.

Gladwyn Turbutt was the undergraduate at Magdalen College, University of Oxford who, by chance, brought the book back to the Library for advice on its binding in 1905. He subsequently worked with Falconer Madan and Strickland Gibson on a scholarly description of the book for publication.

When the First World War broke out, Gladwyn Turbutt (by then an architect specializing in ecclesiastical work) signed up. He later died at the First Battle of Ypres, leading an advance.*

Through a trying march from Le Havre towards the front line, Lieutenant Turbutt is reported as having used his knowledge of Shakespeare to entertain and encourage his men:

Mr. Gladwyn had been sent from Aldershot in command of a draft of 100 men to fill up the gaps in the 2nd Battalion. On landing at Havre, in France, these 100 men set out for the fighting line, having to march a large part of the way. […] To them during their halt he told them of how Henry V of England invaded France, and won the great battle of Agincourt.**

 

We hope you enjoy the play. Let us know what you think. Join the conversation here at our blog, or write a guest blog post and email us.

Find out more

James Mardock’s introduction to his edition of Henry V at Internet Shakespeare Editions is an excellent overview of the play and its textual history.

If you prefer your literary criticism in podcast form, Emma Smith’s
podcast
on the play from her Approaching Shakespeare series is brilliantly engaging.

Notable film versions of Henry V include:

* I am very grateful to Emeritus Professor Richard Sheppard, for sending me details of Gladwyn Turbutt’s war.

** The quotation above is taken from Turbutt’s anonymous obituary in his local parish magazine, of Shirland, Derbyshire (Bodleian Library Records, c. 1262).

How many First Folios do we need?

Emma Smith, Hertford College, University of Oxford, writes…

First Folios are in the news again. Senate House Library at the University of London is consulting on whether to sell a collection of the four Shakespeare Folios.

There has been a general outcry from scholars, alumni and library staff – and one of the points of contention has been Senate House’s description of these books as “essentially duplicates”.

Now it is true that there are over two hundred extant copies of the First Folio (we don’t know what the initial print run was, but estimates vary between around 700 and 1200). But, as many bibliographers have been keen to point out, none of these can be called a duplicate, in part because of variations deriving from the printing press, and also because of the way that the individual history, the life experiences of each volume, are recorded in its copy-specific features.

The Bodleian has two copies of the First Folio, and one has been digitized, following a public appeal. We can use this copy to identify some of its unique features – and imagine their equivalents in Senate House’s Stirling copies.

1. Binding

One of the important things about the Bodleian First Folio is that it is in its original binding. Look at the first four images which show the calfskin binding – done by the Oxford binder William Wildgoose early in 1624. You can see the damage on it, including the rip that marks where the chain which kept it secure in the library was removed (when it left the library, perhaps because it was considered a “duplicate”). You can also see the use of scrap paper to stiffen the paste-down.

2. Manuscript additions

Different readers annotate their books in different ways, and Shakespeare’s First Folio is no exception. Meisei University owns a heavily annotated copy which shows an early reader summarizing plot and speeches as he worked through the volume; many copies of the Folio carry doodles, signatures, corrections, annotations, underlinings, etc., which are all clues to readers’ engagement with the text. On image 4 of the Bodleian’s First Folio you can see a manuscript version of a missing leaf (the poem ‘To the Reader’ by Ben Jonson that is opposite the titlepage, which you can see in one of the Folger’s copies). Someone has also added another poem we haven’t been able to trace beyond this copy, so it may be that it represents an amateur addition to the work.

3. Wear and tear

Book conservators and librarians often seem as if they would really like books to be pristine, unsullied by readers. But what’s so fascinating about our copy is that it shows a good deal of wear and tear. You’ll see as you turn the digital pages that corners are often knocked off, that there are tears in the pages, and sometimes that passages are missing or obscured. These may give us some insight into which plays have been most eagerly read during the life of the book.

4. Stop-press corrections

Like most printed books of this period, the First Folio was corrected, if at all, while the sheets were being printed, and thus bound copies of a work often contain different combinations of corrected and uncorrected states. Our Folio, for instance, has an error in the stage direction when Lear dies at the very end of King Lear. You can see that it has been corrected in the Folger copy.

So, how many First Folios do we need? As many as possible, because we’ve only just begun to give this most influential of books this kind of copy-specific attention, and to think about printed books from this period as unique transmitters – not so much from author to reader, but from reader to reader, through the centuries.

Emma Smith
Hertford College, University of Oxford

This candle burns not clear

Andrew Honey, one of the Bodleian’s conservators who worked on the First Folio, writes…

This candle burns not clear: ’tis I must snuff it

Henry VIII, III, ii

Andrew Honey and Sarah Wheale study First Folios

Andrew Honey and Sarah Wheale study First Folios

Recent attention has rightly focused on the ‘Bodleian’ copy of the First Folio (Arch. G c.7) but some final checks of the catalogue records, in advance of the images being published, gave me the chance to see the Bodleian’s other copy – the ‘Malone’ (Arch. G c.8). I spent two memorable mornings with Sarah Wheale and Pip Willcox collating the two copies. This involved a leaf-by-leaf comparison of them against each other and against the published descriptions, checking for anomalies and differences.

If the Bodleian copy stands as witness to the early reception of the plays, then the Malone copy marks the start of modern Shakespearean textual scholarship. It belonged to Edmond Malone (1741–1812), the editor of Shakespeare whose unprecedented documentary and textual research led him to consult the early quartos and folios of the plays more thoroughly than any scholar before him in order to establish an authoritative text.

At first sight Malone’s copy, clad in a late eighteenth-century binding that he commissioned, looks more pristine than the well-thumbed but carefully preserved Bodleian copy. Closer examination, however, reveals a greater degree of repair and ‘improvement’. The repairs seem to have been carried out as part of the binding process and some pages are now discoloured in places – probably the result of the partial rinsing (with new bleaching agents that were just starting to be used in this period) to remove blots and annotations from books.

The book has other more mysterious marks which seem to be later than the rebinding.  As we carefully worked though the volume burn holes were spotted in places and groups of round stains could be seen. Surely these cannot have happened after the book entered the Bodleian in 1815, where all readers and staff solemnly swear an oath that they will not “kindle therein any fire or flame” – could they have been caused by Edmond Malone’s nighttime reading?

Unfortunately Edmond Malone did not live to see the ‘snuffless’ candles that emerged in the 1820s with plaited wicks: his nighttime reading would have required constant tending of his candle. Maureen Dillon in her illuminating Artificial Sunshine: a social history of domestic lighting (London: National Trust, 2002) explains that “the best-quality tallow candles could last for at least twenty minutes before snuffing, while the cheapest tallow candles, if a decent flame was to be kept and guttering avoided, needed snuffing every few minutes”.

The burn marks in the Malone copy are small, and appear to be caused by small embers falling onto the opened book and lying there momentarily before being extinguished. Other burn holes, decreasing in size, are found in the leaves underneath the first hole but are not found on the leaves facing the largest hole.

The yellowish round stains have the appearance of wax or tallow and fall as circular spots which have made the paper translucent in places. Could this be evidence of Malone’s distracted management of tallow candles whilst he read? The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography records that he seriously damaged his eye-sight by combing through the corporation archives at Stratford by dim candle-light; his First Folio would seem to suggest that he read it on occasion under similarly difficult lighting conditions.

Andrew Honey (with thanks to Abigail Williams)

Conservation Diary — Day 4

Nicole Gilroy writes…

Today we finished straightening turned-over areas of text in the Histories, and will start on the Tragedies tomorrow. As we work through the volume we have been noting the areas that need splint repairs, and once we have been through the entire volume tomorrow we will review the repairs needed and make sure there is time to complete them all. We have also noted several features of interest that will not be clearly recorded by the digitization, such as tears that appear to have occurred during the papermaking process and which we will photograph if time allows.

Nicole and Arthur examine a tear

Nicole Gilroy and Arthur Green examine a tear, which turns out to be a flaw that occurred during the making of the paper rather than damage that has happened during handling of the book. This kind of information will be hard to examine on the flat, digitized images, and so we are recording it as much as possible during our treatment.

We had more visitors today, and the fascinating conversations continue – we discussed the separation of the plays into Comedies, Tragedies and Histories and when this distinction would have come about, and also discussed the other copies of the First Folio, particularly those in Oxford (at Queen’s and Wadham Colleges) and what level of use, repair and rebinding they display.