I will heare that play

Published  by us  in time for the longest day, we’re delighted to be announcing the publication of A Midsummer Night’s Dream from the Bodleian First Folio on 24 June, the traditional quarter day midsummer. However you celebrate the longest days of the year, we wish you happy revels. May none of you wake with a donkey’s head!

MIDSOMMER Nights Dreame

(AS THE FIRST FOLIO TITLES IT)

One of the most enduringly popular of Shakespeare’s plays, A Midsummer Night’s Dream is taught in many schools and  on one website at least  makes it into fourth place on a list of Shakespeare’s “top ten greatest” plays.

Colman's mustard advertisement from: http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk/

A Midsummer Night’s Dream wide reach, in a Colman’s mustard advertisement from 1900: http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk/

The charm of its fairies, its quarelling lovers who pair up in the final act, and the enduring comedy of its rude “Mcehanicals”* make it a particular favourite for school and outdoor productions. Yet this is not a play of caprice and harmless make-believe: there is deliberate cruelty, manipulation, a custody battle, and a forced marriage. As Emma Smith points out in a podcast, the cross lovers explore sex and sexuality rather than celebrate marriage, sometimes to the shock of an audience expecting woodland wit and whimsy.

Theatre programme for A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1900, from: http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk/

A whimsical theatre programme for A Midsummer Night’s Dream, 1900, from: http://johnjohnson.chadwyck.co.uk/

First performed in the mid 1590s, this play was published in quarto versions in 1600 and 1619. You can read and compare them on the British Library’s excellent Shakespeare in Quarto website.

The version in the Bodleian First Folio has been well read. One page (folio O2) has a damaged corner. Two tears have been patched with heavy paper, probably in the early eighteenth century, in an attempt to repair the damage. Actually, though a careful repair by someone who cared for the book (possibly a member of the Turbutt family), the heavy paper risked causing further damage by putting a greater strain on the paper supporting it. This repair, and others like it, were stabilized by colleagues in Conservation and Collection Care.

Find out more

Emma Smith’s podcast on the play from her Approaching Shakespeare series uses modern and early modern understandings of dreams to uncover less expected themes of the play.

Dorothea Kehler’s 2012 book, A Midsummer Night’s DreamCritical Essays, looks at the play’s critical and performance history, and is available online through Google Books.

Our colleagues at the Folger Shakespeare Library have created excellent teaching resources on the play.

Notable film adaptations of A Midsummer Night’s Dream include those directed by:

Musical works inspired by the play include:

Wikipedia has a list of ballet and works of fine art inspired by the play.

If you are in Oxford this July, you can watch Tomahawk Theatre‘s production of the play at Oxford Castle.

* A typographic error in the First Folio renders “Mechanicals” like this (Comedies, p. 153).

The brightest Heauen of Inuention

To celebrate the end of the week that saw the launch of the updated Bodleian First Folio website with the introduction of digital text, its talented designer, Monica Messaggi Kaya, got creative with the Prologue of Henry V and the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare.

Shakespeare - Henry V prologue

All the images and text, which are downloadable from the website, are released under a Creative Commons Attribution licence.

Make your own creative use of them, and email us the results!

For Harry, England, and…

Read the First FolioThanks to the generous donations of our supporters, last year we published a digital facsimile of the Bodleian First Folio of Shakespeare’s plays, where you can experience the first collection of his works in your own home, or download its images to your own device.

This year, to mark Shakespeare’s 450th birthday, we’re delighted to announce a new phase of the project, to publish digital editions of each of the plays. This has been made possible by a lead donation from Dr Geoffrey Eibl-Kaye, with generous support from Dallas Shakespeare Club, James Barber, and another private individual.

Thank you to you all.

We’re excited to be launching our serial publication of Shakespeare’s plays with Henry V: not just for Harry, England, and St. George, but for everyone.

As the digital editions of the plays are published, you will be able to read and reformat them more easily, search across them, and produce play-scripts and cue-scripts.

Henry V

Or

The Life of Henry The Fift.

(as the First Folio titles it)

Henry V is a play of paradoxes.

Sometimes performances interpret the text as jingoistic, highlighting its calls to arms from an impassioned Henry, who understands how to inspire and rouse his troops. Yet a close reading of the text also reveals a petulant and calculating king, who uses his insight to manipulate the people around him, and is capable of denying former friends.

The audience is taken from London to northern France, via Southampton, and in this wide sweep, the Chorus keeps reminding us that we are in the physical space of a theatre.

As the play’s title in its first printed edition (the 1600 quarto) describes, and its most memorable speeches support, this is a play about war: The Cronicle History of King Henry the fift, With his battell fought at Agin Court in France. Together with Auntient Pistoll. But it includes two affecting accounts of deaths (Sir John Falstaff’s, and the Duke of York’s), and a touching (and politically unnecessary) courting scene between Henry and the French princess Katharine (whom he is promised in marriage as the first article in the peace treaty).

Henry shows courteous respect to the Herald who delivers messages from the French camp, yet orders the French prisoners to be killed when he believes the battle is going against him: notably, this happens before he discovers the French have killed the boys behind the English lines.

Henry V and the Bodleian First Folio

In keeping with the many voices of the Bodleian First Folio, Henry V has a particular and poignant place in the life of one of the major figures in the book’s history.

Gladwyn Turbutt was the undergraduate at Magdalen College, University of Oxford who, by chance, brought the book back to the Library for advice on its binding in 1905. He subsequently worked with Falconer Madan and Strickland Gibson on a scholarly description of the book for publication.

When the First World War broke out, Gladwyn Turbutt (by then an architect specializing in ecclesiastical work) signed up. He later died at the First Battle of Ypres, leading an advance.*

Through a trying march from Le Havre towards the front line, Lieutenant Turbutt is reported as having used his knowledge of Shakespeare to entertain and encourage his men:

Mr. Gladwyn had been sent from Aldershot in command of a draft of 100 men to fill up the gaps in the 2nd Battalion. On landing at Havre, in France, these 100 men set out for the fighting line, having to march a large part of the way. […] To them during their halt he told them of how Henry V of England invaded France, and won the great battle of Agincourt.**

 

We hope you enjoy the play. Let us know what you think. Join the conversation here at our blog, or write a guest blog post and email us.

Find out more

James Mardock’s introduction to his edition of Henry V at Internet Shakespeare Editions is an excellent overview of the play and its textual history.

If you prefer your literary criticism in podcast form, Emma Smith’s
podcast
on the play from her Approaching Shakespeare series is brilliantly engaging.

Notable film versions of Henry V include:

* I am very grateful to Emeritus Professor Richard Sheppard, for sending me details of Gladwyn Turbutt’s war.

** The quotation above is taken from Turbutt’s anonymous obituary in his local parish magazine, of Shirland, Derbyshire (Bodleian Library Records, c. 1262).

Evolving Engagement

Colleagues in the Bodleian have worked with IT Services to produce a term-long series of talks, classes and workshops, Engage: Social Media Michaelmas, run by Kate Lindsay with help from Stephen Eyre.

I was delighted to be invited to talk today to a lively audience about the Bodleian First Folio and its two public funding campaigns, 1905/6 and 2012.

Talk description

Evolving Engagement: the many lives of the Bodleian First Folio

In the winter of 1623, a copy of Shakespeare’s newly printed First Folio arrived at the Bodleian Library from London. In the 1660s it left the Library and was lost from view until 1905, when an undergraduate from Magdalen College brought a tattered copy of an early Shakespeare Folio into the Library for advice on its binding.

Inspired by the research of Emma Smith (Hertford College) into the book’s history, Sprint for Shakespeare was a public engagement and funding campaign. Through print, broadcast, and social media, it promoted engagement with Shakespeare, the First Folio, and current research. It raised £20,000 to conserve, photograph, and publish a high quality digital facsimile online, freely available to anyone with internet access. It continues to promote use and understanding of the First Folio and its place in Shakespeare studies, amongst other activities running workshops for teachers and actors.

Pip Willcox (a digital editor at BDLSS, Bodleian Libraries) conceived and managed the project, working closely with Emma Smith, and with colleagues across the Library and the University. In this talk Pip outlines the cultural significance of this first edition of Shakespeare’s plays, relating the winding history of the Bodleian’s copy, and focusing on the two public campaigns the book sparked, in 1905 and 2012.

Slides

This is a reduced size version of the slides from my talk, with images removed where we don’t have permissions to reproduce them.

 

 

“furnish and instruct great Teachers”

(Henry VIII, I, ii)

Emma SmithAfter a successful public fund-raising campaign to digitise the Bodleian’s copy of Shakespeare’s First Folio, the next stage of the project is to involve different groups of readers and help them to enjoy this great free resource.

On 22 June a workshop for teachers at KS5 on ‘Teaching with the First Folio’ took place at Hertford College. After introductions to the project and to the book from Pip Willcox and Emma Smith, colleagues worked on lesson plans showing how they might use the digitised folio in different teaching contexts.

We had contributions on a wonderful range of topics, from using stage directions to understand the power relations of a scene in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, to the toggling between ‘thee’ and ‘you’ in speeches in The Tempest. We discussed ways that the marriage of Rosalind and Orlando at the end of As You Like It isn’t as straight as we might assume if we look at the Folio texts, and the ways that editors make decisions to clarify, but also to disambiguate, possible readings.

Post-its
 26 colleagues attended: all said that they could see ways of using the resource in their teaching, and were excited and motivated to do so.

You can see some of their reactions in the post-it notes pictured (we especially liked “Inspirational: can’t wait to get started doing it!”).

Their lesson resources will be added to the First Folio site, under the same Creative Commons license as the images (CC-BY), over the summer.

post-its 5a

 

Thanks to all who made the workshop such a success. Funding permitting, we have plans for another teachers’ day, and a day working with actors to understand the Folio’s performance possibilities.


Henry Bew, Pip Willcox, James Methven

Emma Smith

This candle burns not clear

Andrew Honey, one of the Bodleian’s conservators who worked on the First Folio, writes…

This candle burns not clear: ’tis I must snuff it

Henry VIII, III, ii

Andrew Honey and Sarah Wheale study First Folios

Andrew Honey and Sarah Wheale study First Folios

Recent attention has rightly focused on the ‘Bodleian’ copy of the First Folio (Arch. G c.7) but some final checks of the catalogue records, in advance of the images being published, gave me the chance to see the Bodleian’s other copy – the ‘Malone’ (Arch. G c.8). I spent two memorable mornings with Sarah Wheale and Pip Willcox collating the two copies. This involved a leaf-by-leaf comparison of them against each other and against the published descriptions, checking for anomalies and differences.

If the Bodleian copy stands as witness to the early reception of the plays, then the Malone copy marks the start of modern Shakespearean textual scholarship. It belonged to Edmond Malone (1741–1812), the editor of Shakespeare whose unprecedented documentary and textual research led him to consult the early quartos and folios of the plays more thoroughly than any scholar before him in order to establish an authoritative text.

At first sight Malone’s copy, clad in a late eighteenth-century binding that he commissioned, looks more pristine than the well-thumbed but carefully preserved Bodleian copy. Closer examination, however, reveals a greater degree of repair and ‘improvement’. The repairs seem to have been carried out as part of the binding process and some pages are now discoloured in places – probably the result of the partial rinsing (with new bleaching agents that were just starting to be used in this period) to remove blots and annotations from books.

The book has other more mysterious marks which seem to be later than the rebinding.  As we carefully worked though the volume burn holes were spotted in places and groups of round stains could be seen. Surely these cannot have happened after the book entered the Bodleian in 1815, where all readers and staff solemnly swear an oath that they will not “kindle therein any fire or flame” – could they have been caused by Edmond Malone’s nighttime reading?

Unfortunately Edmond Malone did not live to see the ‘snuffless’ candles that emerged in the 1820s with plaited wicks: his nighttime reading would have required constant tending of his candle. Maureen Dillon in her illuminating Artificial Sunshine: a social history of domestic lighting (London: National Trust, 2002) explains that “the best-quality tallow candles could last for at least twenty minutes before snuffing, while the cheapest tallow candles, if a decent flame was to be kept and guttering avoided, needed snuffing every few minutes”.

The burn marks in the Malone copy are small, and appear to be caused by small embers falling onto the opened book and lying there momentarily before being extinguished. Other burn holes, decreasing in size, are found in the leaves underneath the first hole but are not found on the leaves facing the largest hole.

The yellowish round stains have the appearance of wax or tallow and fall as circular spots which have made the paper translucent in places. Could this be evidence of Malone’s distracted management of tallow candles whilst he read? The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography records that he seriously damaged his eye-sight by combing through the corporation archives at Stratford by dim candle-light; his First Folio would seem to suggest that he read it on occasion under similarly difficult lighting conditions.

Andrew Honey (with thanks to Abigail Williams)

Count Me In

Guest blogger, Katrin Schlee, writes…

A big call to arms for all who know the importance of the literary legacy Shakespeare left in his wake and who wish to preserve a book that irrevocably finds itself within the compass of time’s bending sickle.  Albert Camus said: “Real generosity toward the future lies in giving all to the present.”  Let’s be generous… let’s give something!  Today.

A Gift that Speaks

A gift that speaks of how I care,
A sum so small and yet so great.
With many others I will share
The sprint that leads to fortune’s gate.

And time, its keeper, has no eyes,
It taunts the rich and mocks the poor,
Its truth? Decay.  It tells no lies
To book and binding, bard and boor.

Go, turn to dust that precious book!
Dissolve the print!  We’ll save the verse!
We’ll give you eyes, so take a look:
Art needs a carriage, not a hearse.

Katrin Schlee

Conservation Diary — Day 10

Nicole Gilroy writes…

Nicole Gilroy shows the First Folio to visitors Francesca Heaney, Steve Rodgers, Richard McCabe and Tim Kirtley

Nicole Gilroy shows the First Folio to visitors Francesca Heaney, Steve Rodgers, Richard McCabe and Tim Kirtley

The two weeks have flown by, and, fortified by a good breakfast at Mick’s Café, the team started on the final day of the stabilization work. We reviewed the work that has been done and we are happy that the splints and joint support are functioning as we intended.

The Maltby's box

The Maltby’s box

Measurements of the book were taken so that a new tailor-made box can be ordered for it: suitable housing is crucial to the preservation of rare books, and though the First Folio has a rather fine presentation box, made for it by the Oxford firm Maltby’s on its return to the library, the box is damaged and is no longer protecting the book as well as we would like.

A custom-made box covered in hard-wearing linen cloth will be constructed for the book, and in true Bodleian style the old box, in its own card box, will be retained alongside it on the shelf!

 
 

Emma Smith and The Guardian's Maev Kennedy

Emma Smith and The Guardian’s Maev Kennedy

We have had some fantastic responses to the project from the media, with journalists from the local news as well as The Guardian and BBC Radio 4 visiting to see our work. The team were delighted to host a visit from Vanessa Redgrave who has given her enthusiastic and heartfelt support to the project. This has made the workshop a busy place over the last two weeks, and we have greatly enjoyed sharing our work with these and many other visitors.

Andrew Honey and The Guardian's Frantzesco Kangaris

Andrew Honey and The Guardian’s Frantzesco Kangaris

Next week the project moves on to the next exciting phase: the digitization itself. The work of the Conservation team is not over, as we will be working closely with our specialist photographers to ensure the safety of the book while getting the best possible images.

Our brief time with this very special book has sparked our interest in many areas: the binding methods and techniques, the paper quality, the material used for repair patches and much more. We look forward to seeing the plays online when the work is complete, and will be following up the threads of evidence that we have been able to pick up during our work.

I hope these notes have been interesting and have given a glimpse of the sort of work that goes on in the Conservation workshop: a combination of history, archaeology, technical analysis, photography, and an awful lot of thinking and talking. Only when we have done all of that do we pick up our brushes and spatulas and carry out the repair.

Sabina Pugh, Julie Sommerfeldt, Arthur Green, Vanessa Redgrave, Andrew Honey, Nicole Gilroy and Thelma Holt

Sabina Pugh, Julie Sommerfeldt, Arthur Green, Vanessa Redgrave, Andrew Honey, Nicole Gilroy and Thelma Holt

Conservation Diary — Day 9

Nicole Gilroy writes…

The final intact bifolium, before treatment

The final intact bifolium, before treatment

We are coming to the end of the treatment needed.

The final bifolium of the book had shifted out of position and protruded from the edge, causing damage to the corner.

The book's final intact bifolium, during work

Nicole Gilroy and Julie Sommerfeldt work on the book’s final intact bifolium

The final intact bifolium, after treatment

The final intact bifolium, after treatment

We have relaxed the spine fold and repositioned the bifolium so that the edges are back within the textblock and in their proper position.

We have also evaluated the success of our splint repairs and are pleased with the way that they allow the leaves to flex properly again.

Final leaf of Titus Andronicus before splint repairs

Final leaf of Titus Andronicus before splint repairs

Final leaf of Titus Andronicus after splint repairs

Final leaf of Titus Andronicus after splint repairs

Last leaf after treatment

Last leaf after treatment

The 3 detached leaves of Cymbeline (around the re-positioned bifolium) will be replaced in position, loose, at the back of the book. In our usual work, we would re-attach loose leaves, repairing the torn spine folds and hinging the loose leaves back into position. But we felt that such repair was undesirable in this case, and would stand out against the minimal approach to the rest of the volume, so they will remain loose. As the book will not be handled by readers as an ordinary book would be, the risks of unattached leaves can be balanced with the principle of minimal interference.

Conservation Diary — Day 8

Nicole Gilroy writes…

As we have looked closely at the edges of the book, we have noticed that there is a break in the textblock: this is usually caused by a split in the sewing or spine linings or adhesive.

A clear break in the  kettle stitch (part of the sewing) at the tail end of the book

A clear break in the kettle stitch (part of the sewing) at the tail end of the book

It is common to see this in the middle of a book, and we have been wondering when this damage occurred, and if it is getting worse, as we thought it might be after going through the book leaf by leaf.

The break in the text-block showing as a step in the edges of the book

The break in the text-block showing as a step in the edges of the book

Yet again, the photographic record of the condition of the book soon after its return to the Bodleian has come to our aid: this time the photograph taken to show the original position of the book in Duke Humfrey’s library, fore-edge out as it would have been chained, clearly shows the ridge along the fore-edge demonstrating that the text-block break had already happened at that point.

The original position of the volume

The volume (marked with an X) in its original position in Duke Humfrey’s Library, showing the text-block break as a ridge in the lower fore-edge. Photo taken soon after the book’s return to the library in the early 20th century.

The edges of the book tell us more than just the condition of the sewing. There are some distinctive ripples along the edges that have made us think a little more about how it was bound.

We know from the size of the leaves that very little was trimmed from the edges, but the edges were certainly trimmed slightly and sprinkled red, though this has now faded and worn.

The edges of a book could have been trimmed in one of two ways in the 17th century: with a draw-knife (a hand-held two-handled knife); or with the relatively new invention, the plough (which involved setting the book up in a horizontal press and running a blade in a jig along the edges creating a neater trim).

The edge of the book

The edge of the book, with possible evidence of trimming using a draw-knife

The rippled edges of the First Folio, with their slight horizontal scoops, suggest that the quicker (therefore cheaper) method of the draw-knife may have been used, perhaps hinting at a more workaday binding rather than an expensive one. This, in combination with the evidence of less-than-perfect paper selection makes us think that this book was not quite the luxury item we might have thought it was.